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green apples on table
Green apple aroma, a by - product of fermentation.

Enzymes, preservatives and antioxidants which are added to simplify the brewing process or prolong shelf life.
grains and beer glass
Fermentable material used as a substitute for traditional grains, to make beer lighter-bodied or cheaper.
fermenting ale yeast
An organism, such as top fermenting ale yeast, that needs oxygen to metabolize.

Ethyl alcohol or ethanol. An intoxicating by-product of fermentation, which is caused by yeast acting on sugars in the malt. Alcohol content is expressed as a percentage of volume or weight.
Alcohol by Weight

Amount of alcohol in beer measured in terms of the percentage weight of alcohol per volume of beer, i.e., 3.2% alcohol by weights equals 3.2 grams of alcohol per 100 centiliters of beer. (It is approximately 20% less than alcohol by volume.)
Alcohol by Volume


Warming taste of ethanol and higher alcohol's.

Beers distinguished by use of top fermenting yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The top fermenting yeast perform at warmer temperatures than do yeast's used to brew lager beer, and their by products are more evident in taste and aroma. Fruitiness and esters are often part of an ale's character.

A relatively new term in America. "All malt" refers to a beer made exclusively with barley malt and without adjuncts.
Amber Ale

Belongs under the Belgian Ale. They are sweeter due to their excess malt. Additionally, they are dark in color thus their first name ‘amber’. Popular types of amber ales include Fat Tire Amber Ale and Budweiser American Ale. Any top or bottom fermented beer having an amber color, that is, between pale and dark.

An organism, such as a bottom-fermenting lager yeast, that is able to metabolize without oxygen present.
Aroma Hops

Varieties of hop chosen to impart bouquet. (See Hops)

A drying, puckering taste; tannic; can be derived from boiling the grains, long mashes, over sparging or sparging with hard water.

Extent to which yeast consumes fermentable sugars (converting them into alcohol and carbon dioxide).
A general term covering off-flavors such as moldy, musty, woody, lactic acid, vinegar, or microbiological spoilage.
Balling Degrees

Scale indicating density of sugars in wort. Devised by C J N Balling.

A cereal grain that is malted for use in the grist that becomes the mash in the brewing of beer.
Barley Wine

It ranges amber to darker shades of black. It is a very fruity and flavorful beer but with a high alcoholic content.

A unit of measurement used by brewers in some countries. In Britain, a barrel holds 36 imperial gallons (1 imperial gallon = 4.5 liters), or 1.63 hectoliters. In the United States, a barrel holds 31.5 US gallons (1 US gallon = 3.8 liters), or 1.17 hectoliters.

Name given alcohol-containing beverages produced by fermenting grain, specifically malt, and flavored with hops.

Falls under Pale Ales. It contains hops that give it a pleasant aroma. A good example is Forster’s Special Bitter. Bitterness of hops or malt husks; sensation on back of tongue.

The perception of a bitter flavor, in beer from iso-alpha-acid in solution (derived from hops). It is measured in International Bitterness Units (IBU).
Black Malt

Partially malted barley roasted at high temperatures. Black malt gives a dark color and roasted flavor to beer.

It is a tasty, dark lager with origins in Germany. Bocks do vary from malty-flavored lagers to darker, hoppy-flavored bocks, popularly referred to as Helles bocks. Two common examples of bocks are Shiner Bock and Michelob Amber Bock

Thickness and mouth-filling property of a beer described as "full or thin bodied".

Secondary fermentation and maturation in the bottle, creating complex aromas and flavors.
Bottom-Fermenting Yeast

One of the two types of yeast used in brewing. Bottom-fermenting yeast works well at low temperatures and ferments more sugars leaving a crisp, clean taste and then settles to the bottom of the tank. Also referred to as "lager yeast".

The collective equipment used to make beer.
Brew Kettle

The vessel in which wort from the mash is boiled with hops. Also called a copper.

Pub that makes its own beer and sells at least 50% of it on premises. Also known in Britain as a home-brew house and in Germany as a house brewery.
Bright Beer Tank

See conditioning tank.

The stopper in the hole in a keg or cask through which the keg or cask is filled and emptied. The hole may also be referred to as a bung or bunghole. Real beer must use a wooden bung.

Aroma and taste of cooked vegetables; often a result of wort spoilage bacteria killed by alcohol in fermentation.

The CAMpaign for Real Ale. An organization in England that was founded in 1971 to preserve the production of cask-conditioned beers and ales.

Sparkle caused by carbon dioxide, either created during fermentation or injected later.

A cooked sugar that is used to add color and alcohol content to beer. It is often used in place of more expensive malted barley.
Caramel Malt

A sweet, coppery-colored malt. Caramel or crystal malt imparts both color and flavor to beer. Caramel malt has a high concentration of unfermentable sugars that sweeten the beer and, contribute to head retention.

A closed, barrel-shaped container for beer. They come in various sizes and are now usually made of metal. The bung in a cask of "Real" beer or ale must be made of wood to allow the pressure to be relived, as the fermentation of the beer, in the cask, continues.

Secondary fermentation and maturation in the cask at the point of sale. Creates light carbonation.

A plastic like aroma; caused by chemical combination of chlorine and organic compounds.
Chill Haze

Cloudiness caused by precipitation of protein-tannin compound at low temperatures, does not affect flavor.
Chill Proof

Beer treated to allow it to withstand cold temperatures without clouding.

Spicy character reminiscent of cloves; characteristic of some wheat beers, or if excessive, may derive from wild yeast.

Period of maturation intended to impart "condition" (natural carbonation). Warm conditioning further develops the complex of flavors. Cold conditioning imparts a clean, round taste.
Conditioning Tank

A vessel in which beer is placed after primary fermentation where the beer matures, clarifies and, is naturally carbonated through secondary fermentation. Also called bright beer tank, serving tank and, secondary tank.
Contract Beer

Beer made by one brewery and then marketed by a company calling itself a brewery. The latter uses the brewing facilities of the former.

See brew kettle.

Exhaustive system of mashing in which portions of the wort are removed, heated, then returned to the original vessel.

The unfermentable carbohydrate produced by the enzymes in barley. It gives the beer flavor, body, and mouthfeel. Lower temperatures produce more dextrin and less sugar. While higher temperatures produce more sugars and less dextrin.

A volatile compound in beer that contributes to a butterscotch flavor, measured in parts per million.

Taste and aroma of sweet corn; results from malt, as a result of the short or weak boil of the wort, slow wort chilling, or bacterial infection. -- Dimethyl sulfide, a sulfur compound.

A stronger version compared to Bock. It is full-bodied and malty. It is typically dark with increased caramel as well as chocolate malts.

The addition of yeast and/or sugar to the cask or bottle to aid secondary fermentation.
Draft (Draught)

The process of dispensing beer from a tank, cask or, keg, by hand pump, pressure from an air pump or, injected carbon dioxide inserted into the beer container prior to sealing.

The addition of dry hops to fermenting or aging beer to increase its hop character or aroma.

A lager that is the premier variety of German lager beer. It is dark in color with a modest alcoholic strength and tastes often suggestive of chocolate, coffee and licorice.

European Brewing Convention. An EBC scale is used to indicate colors in malts and beers.
English Porter

This is also another dark styled beer which originated in London during the 18th century. The name porter was settled to be the name of these beers because if these beers being too much popular in the streets surrounding the river Porters. These beers have been highly in demand since ages and are stilled preferred to be one of the best dark beers. These beers have been popular in several parts of Europe and outside of Europe. The popularity has increased with years and lately has been seen to be accepted by the people of this era as well.

Catalysts that are found naturally in the grain. When heated in mash, they convert the starches of the malted barley into maltose, a sugar used in solution and fermented to make beer.

Volatile flavor compound naturally created in fermentation. Often fruity, flowery or spicy.

Aroma or flavor reminiscent of flowers or fruits.

Conversion of sugars into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide, through the action of yeast.
Final Specific Gravity

Specific gravity of a beer when fermentation is complete (that is, all fermentable sugars have been fermented).

An aid to clarification: a substance that attracts particles that would otherwise remain suspended in the brew.

The removal of designated impurities by passing the wort through a medium, sometimes made of diatomaceous earth ( made up of the microscopic skeletal remains of marine animals). Yeast in suspension is often targeted for removal.

Flavor and aroma of bananas, strawberries, apples, or other fruit; from high temperature fermentation and certain yeast strains.

Tastes like cereal or raw grain.

Brewers' term for milled grains, or the combination of milled grains to be used in a particular brew. Derives from the verb to grind. Also sometimes applied to hops.
Hand Pump

A device for dispensing draft beer using a pump operated by hand. The use of a hand pump allows the cask-conditioned beer to be served without the use of pressurized carbon dioxide.

Lingering bitterness or harshness
Hard Cider

A fermented beverage made from apples.
Heat Exchanger

A mechanical device used to rapidly reduce the temperature of the wort.

A German word meaning "yeast". Used mostly in conjunction with wheat (weiss) beers to denote that the beer is bottled or kegged with the yeast in suspension (hefe-weiss). These beers are cloudy, frothy and, very refreshing.

Cask holding 54 imperial gallons ( 243 liters ).
Hop Back

Sieve-like vessel used to strain out the petals of the hop flowers. Known as a hop jack in the United States.

Herb added to boiling wort or fermenting beer to impart a bitter aroma and flavor.

Aroma of hops, does not include hop bitterness.

International Bitterness units. A system of indicating the hop bitterness in finished beer.
India Pale Ale (IPA)

Falls under the branch of Pale Ale. This hoppy flavor comes across as golden or darker in color and has a bitter scent and taste.

Simplest form of mash, in which grains are soaked in water. May be at a single temperature, or with upward or (occasionally) downward changes.
Irish Ale

It is deeply red in color and has a sweet, malty taste. A popular example of Irish Ale is Killian’s Irish Red.

One-half barrel, or 15.5 U. S. gallons. A half keg or, 7.75 U. S. gallons, is referred to as a pony-keg.

Is a beer is protected by law, such that only the beers brewed in the region of Koln can bear the name Kolsch. It is very light, pale and clear in appearance. The taste is refreshing, fruity and a little sweeter. It is served in tall, straight and cylindrical glasses called Kolsh-Stange

The addition of a small proportion of partly fermented wort to a brew during lagering. Stimulates secondary fermentation and imparts a crisp, spritzy character.

Beers produced with bottom fermenting yeast strains, Saccharomyces uvarum (or carlsbergensis) at colder fermentation temperatures than ales. This cooler environment inhibits the natural production of esters and other by - products, creating a crisper tasting product.

From the German word for storage. Refers to maturation for several weeks or months at cold temperatures (close to 0C /32F) to settle residual yeast, impart carbonation and make for clean round flavors.

To run the wort from the mash tun. From the German word to clarify. A lauter tun is a separate vessel to do this job. It uses a system of sharp rakes to achieve a very intensive extraction of malt sugars.
Lauter Tun

The amount of wort brewed each time the brew house is in operation.

Skunk like smell; from exposure to light.

The brewer's word for water used in the brewing process, as included in the mash or, used to sparge the grains after mashing.
Malt (ING)

The process by which barley is steeped in water, germinated ,then kilned to convert insoluble starch to soluble substances and sugar. The foundation ingredient of beer.
Malt Extract

The condensed wort from a mash, consisting of maltose, dextrins and, other dissolved solids. Either as a syrup or powdered sugar, it is used by brewers, in solutions of water and extract, to reconstitute wort for fermentation.

Also known as Oktoberfest beer, traces its roots in Munich. It is full-bodied and dark brown in color. A popular type of Marzen beer is Samuel Adams Oktoberfest.
It is a beer that derives its name from the month of March(Marzen). And dates back to pre-refrigeration days. The only way to achieve cold temperatures for bottom-fermenting at that time was to brew in winter and stop brewing before the month of March. Then, the beers were kept in icy cave mountains to be consumed in Autumn festivals like the Oktoberfest.

To release malt sugars by soaking the grains in water. (Noun) The resultant mixture.
Mash Tun

A tank where grist is soaked in water and heated in order to convert the starch to sugar and extract the sugars and other solubles from the grist.

A water soluble, fermentable sugar contained in malt.

Meads are produced by the fermentation of honey, water, yeast and optional ingredients such as fruit, herbs, and/or spices. According to final gravity, they are categorized as: dry (0.996 to 1009); medium (1010 to 1019); or sweet (1020 or higher). Wine, champagne, sherry, mead, ale or lager yeasts may be used.

Chemical or phenolic character; can be the result of wild yeast, contact with plastic, or sanitizer residue.

Tastes tinny, bloodlike or coin like; may come from bottle caps.

Small brewery generally producing less than 15,000 barrels per year. Sales primarily off premises.

A sensation derived from the consistency or viscosity of a beer, described, for example as thin or full.
Munich Dark Pale

Traces its origins in Munich. It is a dark lager with fiery blend of malt and coffee taste.
Munich Dunkel

This is considered to be the richest among the other beers because of the content of the beer being so rich itself. These beers are smooth to have and are too tasty. This is one of the very popular dark beers. The brewing process involved in making these beers makes it one of the very tasty beverages to have at any time of the day. Even the bitterness of these beers is not that much compared to the other beers of this kind.

Moldy, mildewy character; can be the result of cork or bacterial infection.
Original Gravity

A measurement of the density of fermentable sugars in a mixture of malt and water with which a brewer begins a given batch.

Stale flavor of wet cardboard, paper, rotten pineapple, or sherry, as a result of oxygen as the beer ages or is exposed to high temperatures.
Pale Ale

It is a light-colored alcoholic drink that is full of malt and hops. Sierra Nevada Pale Ale is a popular example of pale Ale.
Pale Lager

They are popular types of alcoholic drinks worldwide. They are straw-colored; contain a malty taste besides being filtered and crisp. They are very carbonated though lacking high alcohol content. Pilsner lagers are prime examples of pale lager.

Heating of beer to 60-79(C/140-174F to stabilize it microbiologically. Flash-pasteurization is applied very briefly, for 15-60 seconds by heating the beer as it passes through the pipe. Alternately, the bottled beer can be passed on a conveyor belt through a heated tunnel. This more gradual process takes at least 20 minutes and sometimes much longer.

Flavor and aroma of medicine, plastic, Band-Aids, smoke, or cloves; caused by wild yeast or bacteria, or sanitizer residue.

This is the most popular type of German beer representing around two-thirds of the market. It is pale, light straw to golden yellow in color and has an earthy or bitter taste. The light color is due to lightly toast malts.

To add yeast to wort.
Plato, Degrees

Expresses the specific gravity as the weight of extract in a 100 gram solution at 64F (17.5C). Refinement of the Balling scale.

This is a type of extremely Dark Ale, brewed from heavy-roasted malt. It is medium bodied and has a crisp taste. Jack Porter is a famous example of Porter.

The addition of sugar at the maturation stage to promote a secondary fermentation.

An establishment that serves beer and sometimes other alcoholic beverages for consumption on premise. The term originated in England and is the shortened form of "public house".

The owner or manager of a pub.
Regional Specialty Brewery

A brewery that produces more than 15,000 barrels of beer annually, with its largest selling product a specialty beer.

"Purity Law" originating in Bavaria in 1516 and now applied to all German brewers making beer for consumption in their own country. It requires that only malted grains, hops, yeast and water may be used in the brewing.

Flavor like table salt; experienced on the side of the tongue.

This is another very popular dark beer. The color of these beers is entirely black. The alcohol content never exceeds 5% for these beers. There are even flavored beers under this name which has the flavor of coffees and chocolates as well. The black color of these beers comes due to roasting the ingredients while preparing the beers.
Shelf Life

Describes the number of days a beer will retain it's peak drinkability. The shelf life for commercially produced beers is usually a maximum of four months.

Brewers' term for a square fermenting vessel.

These beers fall under the branch of Dark Ale. They are set apart from the rest with the use of malt-free, dark-roasted barley, minimal hops, and sweet, chocolate scents. Stouts come in various types including chocolate, coffee, dry, oatmeal, milk, oyster and Imperial stouts. The most renowned dry stout is Guinness with a minimal sweet taste
Sweet Potato Ale

Taste like sugar; experienced on the front of the tongue.
Sulfur Like

Reminiscent of rotten eggs or burnt matches; a by-product of some yeast's.

Taste sensation cause by acidic flavors.
Top-Fermenting Yeast

One of the two types of yeast used in brewing. Top-fermenting yeast works better at warmer temperatures and are able to tolerate higher alcohol concentrations than bottom-fermenting yeast. It is unable to ferment some sugars, and results in a fruitier, sweeter beer. Also known as "ale yeast".

Any large vessels used in brewing. In America, "tub" is often preferred.

Reminiscent of wine.
Wheat Beer

Also known by names like weissbier or hefeweizen, is a refreshing beer, pale colored and very carbonated.

Sherry like flavor; can be caused by warm fermentation or oxidation in very old beer.

The solution of grain sugars strained from the mash tun. At this stage, regarded as "sweet wort", later as brewed wort, fermenting wort and finally beer.
Wort Chiller

See heat exchanger.

A micro-organism of the fungus family. Genus Saccharomyces.
*beeradvocate.com = assisted in this dictionary